Wednesday, May 12, 2010


Geografi merupakan kajian tentang lokasi dan variasi ruang dalam fenomena manusia dan fizikal di bumi. Perkataan geografi diambil dari perkataan Inggeris yang berasal dari perkataan Greek hê gê ("bumi") dan graphein ("menulis" atau "menggambarkan").

Geografi juga merupakan pelbagai buku sejarah berkenaan bidang ini, khususnya Geographia oleh Klaudios Ptolemaios pada abad ke-2.

Geografi lebih daripada pengkajian peta. Ia bukan hanya menyiasat dimana kedudukan di bumi, kadang kala digelar kedudukan di angkasa. Geografi mengkaji sama ada ia disebabkan oleh manusia atau secara semulajadi. Geografi juga mengkaji kesan perbezaan tersebut.

Geografi fizikal
Geografi fizikal adalah cabang geografi yang membincangkan tentang keadaan fizikal bumi. ia membincangkan tentang:
1.Bumi sebagai satu sistem
3.Laut dan lautan
7.Tumbuhan dan haiwan liar.

Geografi manusia
Aspek manusia pula merangkumi aspek ekonomi, politik, kebudayaan, meterologi dan ekologi bumi yang dipengaruhi oleh kegiatan manusia. Aspek manusia lebih tertumpu kepada sains kemasyarakatan. Ini memberi penerangan tentang cara-cara manusia menyesuaikan diri dengan alam sekeliling dan kesan-kesan kegiatan manusia.Terdapat juga kajian dijalankan mengenai Penggunaan Sistem Maklumat Geografi (GIS) dalam Penilaian Harta Tanah Kediaman.

Geografi persekitaran manusia
Pada sekitar pelupur alam sekeliling (environmental determinism), geografi ditakrifkan bukan mengenai pengkajian hubungan ruang, tetapi mengenai kajian bagaimana manusia dan alam sekitar berinteraksi. Walaupun pelupur alam sekeliling berkurangan, masih terdapat tradisi geografer yang menumpukan hubungan antara manusia dan alam sekitar. Terdapat dua cabang bidang geografi alam sekitar manusia: ekologi kebudayaan dan politik (cultural and political ecology (CAPE)), dan kajian ancaman semulajadi.

Friday, April 30, 2010


Nutrition (also called nourishment or aliment) is the provision, to cells and organisms, of the materials necessary (in the form of food) to support life. Many common health problems can be prevented or alleviated with a healthy diet.
The diet of an organism is what it eats, and is largely determined by the perceived palatability of foods. Dietitians are health professionals who specialize in human nutrition, meal planning, economics, and preparation. They are trained to provide safe, evidence-based dietary advice and management to individuals (in health and disease), as well as to institutions.
A poor diet can have an injurious impact on health, causing deficiency diseases such as scurvy, beriberi, and kwashiorkor; health-threatening conditions like obesity and metabolic syndrome, and such common chronic systemic diseases as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis.
Animal nutrition
Nutritional science investigates the metabolic and physiological responses of the body to diet. With advances in the fields of molecular biology, biochemistry, and genetics, the study of nutrition is increasingly concerned with metabolism and metabolic pathways: the sequences of biochemical steps through which substances in living things change from one form to another.
A carnivore and herbivore diet is contrasting, with basic nitrogen and carbon proportions being at varying levels in particular foods. Carnivore nutrition has more nitrogen than carbon and herbivore nutrition contains less nitrogen than carbon, when an equal quantity is measured. Nitrogen is the predominant source of energy for organisms, through the nitrogen cycle, with various minerals and vitamins being equally vital. Nitrogen is also the primary energy for regular metabolic rates, this necessitates greater sums of plants for herbivore digestion, to absorb significant energy for sustenance and stamina.
The human body contains chemical compounds, such as water, carbohydrates (sugar, starch, and fiber), amino acids (in proteins), fatty acids (in lipids), and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). These compounds in turn consist of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, iron, zinc, magnesium, manganese, and so on. All of these chemical compounds and elements occur in various forms and combinations (e.g. hormones, vitamins, phospholipids, hydroxyapatite), both in the human body and in the plant and animal organisms that humans eat.
The human body consists of elements and compounds ingested, digested, absorbed, and circulated through the bloodstream to feed the cells of the body. Except in the unborn fetus, the digestive system is the first system involved[vague]. In a typical adult, about seven liters of digestive juices enter the lumen of the digestive tract.[citation needed][clarification needed] These break chemical bonds in ingested molecules, and modulate their conformations and energy states. Though some molecules are absorbed into the bloodstream unchanged, digestive processes release them from the matrix of foods. Unabsorbed matter, along with some waste products of metabolism, is eliminated from the body in the feces.
Studies of nutritional status must take into account the state of the body before and after experiments, as well as the chemical composition of the whole diet and of all material excreted and eliminated from the body (in urine and feces). Comparing the food to the waste can help determine the specific compounds and elements absorbed and metabolized in the body. The effects of nutrients may only be discernible over an extended period, during which all food and waste must be analyzed. The number of variables involved in such experiments is high, making nutritional studies time-consuming and expensive, which explains why the science of human nutrition is still slowly evolving.
In general, eating a wide variety of fresh, whole (unprocessed), foods has proven favorable compared to monotonous diets based on processed foods. In particular, the consumption of whole-plant foods slows digestion and allows better absorption, and a more favorable balance of essential nutrients per Calorie, resulting in better management of cell growth, maintenance, and mitosis (cell division), as well as better regulation of appetite and blood sugar[citation needed]. Regularly scheduled meals (every few hours) have also proven more wholesome than infrequent or haphazard ones.[citation needed]
Main article: Nutrient
There are six major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates, fats, minerals, protein, vitamin, and water.
These nutrient classes can be categorized as either macronutrients (needed in relatively large amounts) or micronutrients (needed in smaller quantities). The macronutrients are carbohydrates, fats, fiber, proteins, and water. The micronutrients are minerals and vitamins.
The macronutrients (excluding fiber and water) provide structural material (amino acids from which proteins are built, and lipids from which cell membranes and some signaling molecules are built), energy. Some of the structural material can be used to generate energy internally, and in either case it is measured in Joules or kilocalories (often called "Calories" and written with a capital C to distinguish them from little 'c' calories). Carbohydrates and proteins provide 17 kJ approximately (4 kcal) of energy per gram, while fats provide 37 kJ (9 kcal) per gram., though the net energy from either depends on such factors as absorption and digestive effort, which vary substantially from instance to instance. Vitamins, minerals, fiber, and water do not provide energy, but are required for other reasons. A third class dietary material, fiber (i.e., non-digestible material such as cellulose), seems also to be required, for both mechanical and biochemical reasons, though the exact reasons remain unclear.
Molecules of carbohydrates and fats consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Carbohydrates range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose) to complex polysaccharides (starch). Fats are triglycerides, made of assorted fatty acid monomers bound to glycerol backbone. Some fatty acids, but not all, are essential in the diet: they cannot be synthesized in the body. Protein molecules contain nitrogen atoms in addition to carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. The fundamental components of protein are nitrogen-containing amino acids, some of which are essential in the sense that humans cannot make them internally. Some of the amino acids are convertible (with the expenditure of energy) to glucose and can be used for energy production just as ordinary glucose. By breaking down existing protein, some glucose can be produced internally; the remaining amino acids are discarded, primarily as urea in urine. This occurs normally only during prolonged starvation.
Other micronutrients include antioxidants and phytochemicals which are said to influence (or protect) some body systems. Their necessity is not as well established as in the case of, for instance, vitamins.
Most foods contain a mix of some or all of the nutrient classes, together with other substances such as toxins or various sorts. Some nutrients can be stored internally (e.g., the fat soluble vitamins), while others are required more or less continuously. Poor health can be caused by a lack of required nutrients or, in extreme cases, too much of a required nutrient. For example, both salt and water (both absolutely required) will cause illness or even death in too large amounts.
Main article: Carbohydrate

Toasted bread is a cheap, high calorie nutrient (usually unbalanced, i.e., deficient in essential minerals and vitamins, largely because of removal of both germ and bran during processing) food source.
Carbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides depending on the number of monomer (sugar) units they contain. They constitute a large part of foods such as rice, noodles, bread, and other grain-based products. Monosaccharides contain one sugar unit, disaccharides two, and polysaccharides three or more. Polysaccharides are often referred to as complex carbohydrates because they are typically long multiple branched chains of sugar units. The difference is that complex carbohydrates take slightly longer to digest and absorb since their sugar units must be separated from the chain before absorption. The spike in blood glucose levels after ingestion of simple sugars is thought to be related to some of the heart and vascular diseases which have become more frequent in recent times. Simple sugars form a greater part of modern diets than formerly, perhaps leading to more cardiovascular disease. The degree of causation is still not clear, however.
Simple carbohydrates are absorbed quickly, and therefore raise blood-sugar levels more rapidly than other nutrients. However, the most important plant carbohydrate nutrient, starch, varies in its absorption. Gelatinized starch (starch heated for a few minutes in the presence of water) is far more digestible than plain starch. And starch which has been divided into fine particles is also more absorbable during digestion. The increased effort and decreased availability reduces the available energy from starchy foods substantially and can be seen experimentally in rats and anecdotally in humans. Additionally, up to a third of dietary starch may be unavailable due to mechanical or chemical difficulty.
Carbohydrates are not essential to the human diet, as they are relatively low in vitamins and minerals, and energy can be provided from excess fats and proteins in the diet.
Main article: Dietary fiber
Dietary fiber is a carbohydrate (or a polysaccharide) that is incompletely absorbed in humans and in some animals. Like all carbohydrates, when it is metabolized it can produce four Calories (kilocalories) of energy per gram. But in most circumstances it accounts for less than that because of its limited absorption and digestibility. Dietary fiber consists mainly of cellulose, a large carbohydrate polymer that is indigestible because humans do not have the required enzymes to disassemble it. There are two subcategories: soluble and insoluble fiber. Whole grains, fruits (especially plums, prunes, and figs), and vegetables are good sources of dietary fiber. There are many health benefits of a high-fiber diet. Dietary fiber helps reduce the chance of gastrointestinal problems such as constipation and diarrhea by increasing the weight and size of stool and softening it. Insoluble fiber, found in whole-wheat flour, nuts and vegetables, especially stimulates peristalsis -- the rhythmic muscular contractions of the intestines which move digesta along the digestive tract. Soluble fiber, found in oats, peas, beans, and many fruits, dissolves in water in the intestinal tract to produce a gel which slows the movement of food through the intestines. This may help lower blood glucose levels because it can slow the absorption of sugar. Additionally, fiber, perhaps especially that from whole grains,is thought to possibly help lessen insulin spikes, and therefore reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. The link between increased fiber consumption and a decreased risk of colorectal cancer is still uncertain
Main article: Fat
A molecule of dietary fat typically consists of several fatty acids (containing long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms), bonded to a glycerol. They are typically found as triglycerides (three fatty acids attached to one glycerol backbone). Fats may be classified as saturated or unsaturated depending on the detailed structure of the fatty acids involved. Saturated fats have all of the carbon atoms in their fatty acid chains bonded to hydrogen atoms, whereas unsaturated fats have some of these carbon atoms double-bonded, so their molecules have relatively fewer hydrogen atoms than a saturated fatty acid of the same length. Unsaturated fats may be further classified as monounsaturated (one double-bond) or polyunsaturated (many double-bonds). Furthermore, depending on the location of the double-bond in the fatty acid chain, unsaturated fatty acids are classified as omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids. Trans fats are a type of unsaturated fat with trans-isomer bonds; these are rare in nature and in foods from natural sources; they are typically created in an industrial process called (partial) hydrogenation. There are eight kilocalories in each gram of fat.
Saturated fats (typically from animal sources) have been a staple in many world cultures for millennia. Unsaturated fats (e. g., vegetable oil) are considered healthier, while trans fats are to be avoided. Saturated and some trans fats are typically solid at room temperature (such as butter or lard), while unsaturated fats are typically liquids (such as olive oil or flaxseed oil). Trans fats are very rare in nature, and have been shown to be highly detrimental to human health, but have properties useful in the food processing industry, such as rancidity resistance.[citation needed]
Essential fatty acids
Main article: Essential fatty acids
Most fatty acids are non-essential, meaning the body can produce them as needed, generally from other fatty acids and always by expending energy to do so. However, in humans at least two fatty acids are essential and must be included in the diet. An appropriate balance of essential fatty acids—omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids—seems also important for health, though definitive experimental demonstration has been elusive. Both of these "omega" long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are substrates for a class of eicosanoids known as prostaglandins, which have roles throughout the human body. They are hormones, in some respects. The omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which can be made in the human body from the omega-3 essential fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (LNA), or taken in through marine food sources, serves as a building block for series 3 prostaglandins (e.g. weakly inflammatory PGE3). The omega-6 dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) serves as a building block for series 1 prostaglandins (e.g. anti-inflammatory PGE1), whereas arachidonic acid (AA) serves as a building block for series 2 prostaglandins (e.g. pro-inflammatory PGE 2). Both DGLA and AA can be made from the omega-6 linoleic acid (LA) in the human body, or can be taken in directly through food. An appropriately balanced intake of omega-3 and omega-6 partly determines the relative production of different prostaglandins: one reason a balance between omega-3 and omega-6 is believed important for cardiovascular health. In industrialized societies, people typically consume large amounts of processed vegetable oils, which have reduced amounts of the essential fatty acids along with too much of omega-6 fatty acids relative to omega-3 fatty acids.
The conversion rate of omega-6 DGLA to AA largely determines the production of the prostaglandins PGE1 and PGE2. Omega-3 EPA prevents AA from being released from membranes, thereby skewing prostaglandin balance away from pro-inflammatory PGE2 (made from AA) toward anti-inflammatory PGE1 (made from DGLA). Moreover, the conversion (desaturation) of DGLA to AA is controlled by the enzyme delta-5-desaturase, which in turn is controlled by hormones such as insulin (up-regulation) and glucagon (down-regulation). The amount and type of carbohydrates consumed, along with some types of amino acid, can influence processes involving insulin, glucagon, and other hormones; therefore the ratio of omega-3 versus omega-6 has wide effects on general health, and specific effects on immune function and inflammation, and mitosis (i.e. cell division).

Most meats such as chicken contain all the essential amino acids needed for humans
Main article: Protein in nutrition
Proteins are the basis of many animal body structures (e.g. muscles, skin, and hair). They also form the enzymes which control chemical reactions throughout the body. Each molecule is composed of amino acids which are characterized by inclusion of nitrogen and sometimes sulphur (these components are responsible for the distinctive smell of burning protein, such as the keratin in hair). The body requires amino acids to produce new proteins (protein retention) and to replace damaged proteins (maintenance). As there is no protein or amino acid storage provision, amino acids must be present in the diet. Excess amino acids are discarded, typically in the urine. For all animals, some amino acids are essential (an animal cannot produce them internally) and some are non-essential (the animal can produce them from other nitrogen-containing compounds). About twenty amino acids are found in the human body, and about ten of these are essential, and therefore must be included in the diet. A diet that contains adequate amounts of amino acids (especially those that are essential) is particularly important in some situations: during early development and maturation, pregnancy, lactation, or injury (a burn, for instance). A complete protein source contains all the essential amino acids; an incomplete protein source lacks one or more of the essential amino acids.
It is possible to combine two incomplete protein sources (e.g. rice and beans) to make a complete protein source, and characteristic combinations are the basis of distinct cultural cooking traditions. Sources of dietary protein include meats, tofu and other soy-products, eggs, legumes, and dairy products such as milk and cheese. Excess amino acids from protein can be converted into glucose and used for fuel through a process called gluconeogenesis. The amino acids remaining after such conversion are discarded.
Main article: Dietary mineral
Dietary minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen that are present in nearly all organic molecules. The term "mineral" is archaic, since the intent is to describe simply the less common elements in the diet. Some are heavier than the four just mentioned—including several metals, which often occur as ions in the body. Some dietitians recommend that these be supplied from foods in which they occur naturally, or at least as complex compounds, or sometimes even from natural inorganic sources (such as calcium carbonate from ground oyster shells). Some are absorbed much more readily in the ionic forms found in such sources. On the other hand, minerals are often artificially added to the diet as supplements; the most famous is likely iodine in iodized salt which prevents goiter.
Many elements are essential in relative quantity; they are usually called "bulk minerals". Some are structural, but many play a role as electrolytes.Elements with recommended dietary allowance (RDA) greater than 200 mg/day are, in alphabetical order (with informal or folk-medicine perspectives in parentheses):
Calcium, a common electrolyte, but also needed structurally (for muscle and digestive system health, bones, some forms neutralizes acidity, may help clear toxins, and provide signaling ions for nerve and membrane functions)
Chlorine as chloride ions; very common electrolyte; see sodium, below
Magnesium, required for processing ATP and related reactions (builds bone, causes strong peristalsis, increases flexibility, increases alkalinity)
Phosphorus, required component of bones; essential for energy processing
Potassium, a very common electrolyte (heart and nerve health)
Sodium, a very common electrolyte; not generally found in dietary supplements, despite being needed in large quantities, because the ion is very common in food: typically as sodium chloride, or common salt. Excessive sodium consumption can deplete calcium and magnesium, leading to high blood pressure and osteoporosis.
Sulfur for three essential amino acids and therefore many proteins (skin, hair, nails, liver, and pancreas). Sulfur is not consumed alone, but in the form of sulfur-containing amino acids
Trace minerals
Many elements are required in trace amounts, usually because they play a catalytic role in enzymes. Some trace mineral elements (RDA < title="Cobalt" href="">Cobalt required for biosynthesis of vitamin B12 family of coenzymes. Animals cannot biosynthesize B12, and must obtain this cobalt-containing vitamin in the diet
Copper required component of many redox enzymes, including cytochrome c oxidase
Chromium required for sugar metabolism
Iodine required not only for the biosynthesis of thyroxin, but probably, for other important organs as breast, stomach, salivary glands, thymus etc. (see Extrathyroidal iodine); for this reason iodine is needed in larger quantities than others in this list, and sometimes classified with the macrominerals
Iron required for many enzymes, and for hemoglobin and some other proteins
Manganese (processing of oxygen)
Molybdenum required for xanthine oxidase and related oxidases
Nickel present in urease
Selenium required for peroxidase (antioxidant proteins)
Vanadium (Speculative: there is no established RDA for vanadium. No specific biochemical function has been identified for it in humans, although vanadium is required for some lower organisms.)
Zinc required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, liver alcohol dehydrogenase, carbonic anhydrase
Main article: Vitamin
As with the minerals discussed above, some vitamins are recognized as essential nutrients, necessary in the diet for good health. (Vitamin D is the exception: it can alternatively be synthesized in the skin, in the presence of UVB radiation.) Certain vitamin-like compounds that are recommended in the diet, such as carnitine, are thought useful for survival and health, but these are not "essential" dietary nutrients because the human body has some capacity to produce them from other compounds. Moreover, thousands of different phytochemicals have recently been discovered in food (particularly in fresh vegetables), which may have desirable properties including antioxidant activity (see below); experimental demonstration has been suggestive but inconclusive. Other essential nutrients not classed as vitamins include essential amino acids (see above), choline, essential fatty acids (see above), and the minerals discussed in the preceding section.
Vitamin deficiencies may result in disease conditions: goitre, scurvy, osteoporosis, impaired immune system, disorders of cell metabolism, certain forms of cancer, symptoms of premature aging, and poor psychological health (including eating disorders), among many others.Excess of some vitamins is also dangerous to health (notably vitamin A), and for at least one vitamin, B6, toxicity begins at levels not far above the required amount. Deficiency or excess of minerals can also have serious health consequences.
Main article: Drinking water
A manual water pump in China
It is not fully clear how much water intake is needed by healthy people, although some assert that 6–8 glasses of water daily is the minimum to maintain proper hydration. The notion that a person should consume eight glasses of water per day cannot be traced to a credible scientific source.The effect of, greater or lesser, water intake on weight loss and on constipation is also still unclear. The original water intake recommendation in 1945 by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Research Council read: "An ordinary standard for diverse persons is 1 milliliter for each calorie of food. Most of this quantity is contained in prepared foods." The latest dietary reference intake report by the United States National Research Council recommended, generally, (including food sources): 2.7 liters of water total for women and 3.7 liters for men. Specifically, pregnant and breastfeeding women need additional fluids to stay hydrated. According to the Institute of Medicine—who recommend that, on average, women consume 2.2 litres and men 3.0 litres—this is recommended to be 2.4 litres (approx. 9 cups) for pregnant women and 3 litres (approx. 12.5 cups) for breastfeeding women since an especially large amount of fluid is lost during nursing.
For those who have healthy kidneys, it is somewhat difficult to drink too much water,[citation needed] but (especially in warm humid weather and while exercising) it is dangerous to drink too little. People can drink far more water than necessary while exercising, however, putting them at risk of water intoxication, which can be fatal. In particular large amounts of de-ionized water are dangerous.
Normally, about 20 percent of water intake comes in food, while the rest comes from drinking water and assorted beverages (caffeinated included). Water is excreted from the body in multiple forms; including urine and feces, sweating, and by water vapor in the exhaled breath

Wednesday, April 28, 2010

Sejarah Melaka

A Famosa merupakan nama kubu yang dibina oleh orang Portugis selepas menakluk Melaka pada 1511. Sebaik sahaja mereka menawan Melaka, Portugis menggunakan buruh paksa untuk membina kubu sementara bagi menangkis serangan orang-orang Melayu, sementara mereka membina kubu utama yang digelar "A Famosa", atau secara rasminya Kubu Melaka (Fortaleza de Malaca). Kota A Famosa mengambil masa selama 5 bulan untuk di bina. Akibat suhu panas terik dan kekurangan makanan, ramai buruh paksa yang mati ketika membina kota tersebut. Bahan bagi membina kota tersebut diambil dari runtuhan masjid dan bangunan lain.
Pembinaan kota A Famosa atas arahan Alfonso de Albuquerque boleh dikatakan menjadi lambang penentangan penduduk Melaka masa itu sehinggakan memaksa pihak Portugis membina kota pertahanan sebaik sahaja mereka menguasai bandar Melaka.
Kota A Famosa yang disiapkan mempunyai empat menara, atau ketelom (bastion), dengan tembok setebal 2.4 meter hingga 4.5 meter. Menara-menara tersebut dikenali sebagai Baluarte San Pedro, Baluerte de las Virgenes, Baluerte Madre de Dios, Baluerte Santo Domingo, dan Baluerte de Santiago. Menjelang tahun 1583, Melaka telah menjadi bandar berkota yang dilindungi dengan tujuh puluh meriam ke semua arah.
A Famosa diperluaskan ke kawasan berhampiran dan meliputi penempatan Eropah. Kawasan itu termasuklah Jalan Kota, Jalan Gereja, Jalan Mahkamah & Jalan Istana. Penjajah Portugis turut menjadikan ini satu penempatan Kristian dengan 5 gereja, tempat beribadat, biara, hospital dan sebagainya. Bagaimanapun, kota ini gagal menghalang Belanda pada kurun ke-17. Dengan bantuan rakyat tempatan dan Melayu Johor, serangan telah dilancarkan sebelum Belanda berjaya merampas Melaka.

Fort A' Formosa: Perobohan oleh pihak British diberhentikan oleh Sir Stamford Raffles pada 1808 sewaktu beliau singgah di Melaka. Apa yang ditinggalkan dipelihara sehingga hari kini.Gambar oleh: Cornell Japanese Animation Society
Penaklukan oleh Belanda
Kota A Famosa dibina sebegitu kukuh sehinggakan ia membantu Portugis untuk menangkis semua bentuk serangan. Untuk menakluk Melaka, pasukan Belanda mengepong kota tersebut selama lima bulan, sementara penduduk yang terperangkap di dalamnya terpaksa memakan kucing, tikus, dan dalam satu kes seorang wanita memakan bayinya yang mati. Akhirnya, pada 14 Januari 1641, pihak Belanda menyerbu melalui Pintu Santo Domingo Gate, yang menjelang masa itu mengalami korban lebih 7,000, akibat kebuluran, penyakit dan tembakan senjata api.
Kota A Famosa yang rosak teruk dalam pertempuran telah diperbaiki sementara Porta de Santiago yang merupakan pintu utamanya digantikan dengan logo Syarikat Hindia Timur Belanda. Selepas menawan kota tersebut, pihak Belanda membaiki dan mengubah suai, dan meletakkan jata mereka di atas pintu pagar yang masih kekal sehingga kini pada Porta de Santiago, satu-satunya pintu yang terselamat, dengan ukiran "Anno 1670".
Pentadbiran oleh British
Apabila tentera Napoleon menjajah Belanda (Holland) pada tahun 1795, Putera William of Orange melarikan diri ke London, di mana dia memerintah semua penempatan Belanda untuk menerima tentera British, bagi menghalang mereka dari jatuh ke tangan Perancis. Akibatnya, pihak British berjaya menguasai Melaka pada 1795 tanpa sebarang pertempuran.
Selepas menguasai Melaka, pihak British tidak berminat menyimpannya, ataupun membiayai penempatan tentera bagi mempertahankan Melaka yang dianggap milik sementara dan perlu dipulangkan kepada pihak Belanda selepas perang. Sebaliknya meninggalkan kota sekukuh itu tanpa pertahanan yang mencukupi adalah mengundang mara bahaya, sekiranya ia ditawan oleh pihak musuh. Tambahan lagi, mereka tidak berminat bagi memulangkan Melaka ke tangan Belanda dengan kota A Famosa dalam keadaan utuh sebagai saingan kepada penempatan Inggeris di Pulau Pinang dan Singapura. Dengan sebab itu, Mr. Robert Farquhar iaitu Leftenan Gabenor Pulau Pinang dan juga Gabenor Melaka antara 1803 hingga 1818, telah membuat cadangan bagi memusnahkan kota A Famosa kepada Kerajaan Inggeris di India.
Beliau menyatakan bahawa penyelenggaraan dan pertahanan kubu tersebut hendaklah dikecilkan dan memberikan dua sebab utama, iaitu hasil yang diperolehi oleh Melaka tidak mampu membantu membiayai kos penempatan tentera 'sepoy' dan pengecilan itu akan dapat membantu memajukan Pulau Pinang dengan memindahkan penduduk Melaka ke Pulau Pinang. Maka pada awal 1804, beliau dengan tegas mencadangkan agar Melaka dihapuskan dari muka bumi dengan semua penduduk Melaka diarah supaya dipindahkan ke Pulau Pinang dan Kota Famosa dimusnahkan bagi mengelak ia dikuasai oleh pihak lawan.
Dengan cadangan tersebut, Kerajaan Inggeris di India mengarahkan Kota A Famosa yang terletak di Bandar Hilir, Melaka dihancurkan. Kerja merobohkan Kota A Famosa bermula pada 10 Ogos 1807. Pada awalnya dia memerintahkan pesalah untuk merobohkan Kota A Famosa batu demi batu dengan menggunakan pemungkis dan besi penyungkil. Apabila tembok yang sesetengahnya mencecah 4.5 meter kelihatan terlalu kukuh untuk ditanggalkan, dia memutuskan bagi memusnahkan Kota A Famosa dengan menggunakan ubat bedil. Dia memerintah lubang digali di sekeliling kaki kota dan meletupkan Kota A Famosa, menyebabkan batu sebesar rumah berterbangan dan jatuh ke laut. Hampir kesemua kubu, tembok-tembok, Hospital Besar, dua tempat menyimpan beras, tempat kediaman dan enam bilik simpanan telah diletup dan diratakan.
Semasa kerja-kerja pemusnahan telah pun berlaku dengan rancaknya, Sir Stamford Raffles seorang kaki-tangan kerajaan yang bercuti sakit telah datang ke Melaka atas jemputan William Farquhar. Apabila mengetahui mengenai perobohan Kota A Famosa, beliau telah menulis surat kepada Kerajaan Inggeris di Pulau Pinang dan India dengan menyatakan bahawa pemusnahan Kota Famosa tidak patut dilakukan. Beliau telah memberi sebab-sebab tertentu, pertamanya jika Inggeris membiarkan Melaka, pihak lain akan mendudukinya, sudah pasti ia akan merugikan Pulau Pinang, kedua Melaka itu sendiri mempunyai nilai sejarah dan mentadbirkannya tidak memerlukan perbelanjaan yang banyak, manakala yang ketiga penduduk-penduduk Melaka tidak perlu dipindahkan kerana sebelum Belanda meninggalkan Melaka, Inggeris telah pun memerintahkan penduduk Melaka supaya terus tinggal di situ. Beliau turut menyatakan bahawa Inggeris tidak perlu meninggalkan Melaka hanya kecuali dipaksa.
Cadangan Raffles itu telah diterima dengan baik oleh Kerajaan Inggeris tetapi ia sudah terlambat kerana hampir seluruh kota tersebut telah musnah. Pemusnahan Kota 'A Famosa' pada hari ini dalam tahun 1807, telah memusnahkan hampir seluruh kota itu, dan hanya meninggalkan satu pintu kotanya yang dapat dilihat hingga hari ini, iaitu Porta de Santiago.
Pihak British kekal di Melaka sehingga tahun 1818. Apabila berakhirnya peperangan Napoleon, Melaka dikembalikan ke tangan Belanda (tanpa Kota A Famosa). Melaka kekal di tangan Belanda selama tujuh tahun berikutnya, sehinggalah perjanjian London 1824, apabila mereka menukarkan Melaka dengan Bangkahulu (Bencoolen) di Sumatra.
Penemuan arkeologi

Pada akhir November 2006, sebahagian struktur kota, dipercayai Kubu Middelsburgh dijumpai secara tidak sengaja semasa pembinaan menara berputar 110 meter di bandar .MelakaPembinaan menara ditangguhkan selepas penemuan tersebut. Koperasi Muzium Melaka mensyaki struktur tersebut dibina oleh Belanda semasa pendudukan Belanda ke atas Melaka dari 1641 hingga 1824.Lebih awal lagi pada Jun 2003, menara kawalan digelar Kubu Santiago dijumpai semasa pembinaan Dataran Pahlawan

Wednesday, April 21, 2010


Nama saya Yeo Yee Wei.Saya berumur 14 tahun .Saya tinggal di Sungai Rambai .Saya belajar di Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Sungai Rambai.Hobi saya ialah membaca buku cerita.Makanan kegemaran saya ialah suhsi dan minuman kegemaran saya ialah jus oren.